KESAKSIAN & PENGAKUAN

DOA SYUKUR

Terimakasih Tuhan Yesus karena Kau memberikanku kesempatan merasakan kekurangan, sebab itulah aku mengerti makna bersyukur dalam kecukupan

Terimakasih Tuhan Yesus karena Kau memberikanku kesempatan berkelebihan, sebab itulah aku mengerti bahwa tak berbagi dalam kelebihan adalah kesalahan

Ampuni aku Tuhan karena menjauh dari Engkau dan terimakasih karena cobaan yang Kau ijinkan kuterima menyadarkanku…

Kini kumengerti betapa berharganya penyadaran dan betapa tak ternilainya sebuah kesadaran akan ketuhananMU!

Meski penyadaran itu berawal pahit dan kesesatan itu berawal manis, dengan kesadaran; pahit atau manis seharusnya senantiasa membuatku sadar, dan sadar membuatku senantiasa bersyukur.

"Muda menutup mata, tua merana", Karya: Moses Foresto, 2010, Oil on Canvas, 110cmX140cm.
"Muda menutup mata, tua merana", Karya: Moses Foresto, 2010, Oil on Canvas, 110cmX140cm.

Teringat akan puisi tahun 2008, dalam bebal tak berbatas, kemunafikan merajalela… sang pendusta kembali terhilang…

DOA ANAK HILANG

Dengan cara yang lembut dan tepat, Tuhan bertindak keras kepadaku.

Ia tahu persis apa yang kuperlukan.

Seperti dinding yang kokoh pagarnya tegas pada saat aku lemah dan lelah, bukan untuk menghimpit namun menjadi penopang yang mengendalikan jalan hidupku agar tak roboh dan tersesat.

Tersesatlah aku karena tidak menghasilkan buah-buah Roh melainkan buah-buah kedagingan yang menjerat leher dan menyesatkan.

Telah kupilih sendiri,  hasilkan buah-buah dalam Roh dan kebenaran bukannya hasilkan buah-buah dosa namun tidakanku berlawanan dengan pilihanku, sebab aku lemah dan bodoh

Saat ini buah-buah dosa menjadi bebanku. Buah-buah itu mengejar dan tak rela melepaskanku.

Tamengku, Perisai yang baik telah kuretakkan dengan dosa-dosa tak terhingga, bahkan kubuang dan kutinggalkan

Sekarang saatnya aku menentukan tindakan

Menjadi seperti Kain yang mengobarkan amarah pada Tuhan dengan menyalahkan Habil serta orang benar lainnya

Menjadi seperti Saul yang mengandalkan kekuatan sendiri, mencari Tuhan dengan tidak layak dan tak berkenan

Menjadi seperti Simson yang menjadi tak taat setelah menerima berkat dan bertindak tanpa hikmat

Tidak Tuhan, jauhkan aku dari pilihan-pilihan itu, aku mau seperti Daniel yang menguduskan diri demi Allah yang hidup

Aku mau seperti Daud yang dengan hikmat menyesali perbuatannya, hidup benar, layak dan berkenan di hadapan Engkau Tuhan

Jika terlalu jauh dan berat untuk menjadi seperti Paulus, aku mau seperti Stefanus yang hidup dan mati dalam kebenaran

Tuhan, setiap kali berbuat dosa aku membukakan celah bisa dan racun mencelakakan jiwaku..

Tak terhitung kini dosa-dosaku

Tak terhitung pula racun di dalam jiwaku

Kini ya Bapaku, kuduskanlah kiranya aku dari segala macam racun itu

Dengan berperisaikan Engkau, hindarkanlah aku dari serangan Iblis.

Aku milikMu ya Tuhan

Engkau yang telah menebusku dari kesia-siaan dan membawaku kepada kemuliaan anak Raja, namun semua pernah kutinggalkan untuk hidup dalam penyiksaan dan mengarahkan hidupku pada api neraka dalam kekekalan

Ampuni aku… maafkan aku, Tuhan Yesus

Terimalah aku kembali, anak hilang yang tak tahu diri

Kini aku sadar dan mencari Engkau, ijinkan lagi aku menemukan Enkau dan menautkan diriku denganMu ya Allah.

Terimakasih Tuhan Yesus Kristus, Amin.

Ungaran, 7 Oktober 2008

IJINKAN AKU KEMBALI, BAPA…

BERI HAMBA KEKUATAN…

MESKI BERKALI-KALI TERHILANG,

TERIMALAH HAMBA KEMBALI…

Ungaran, 24 Januari 2011

Buku Mewarna: “Winnie the Pooh”

Rekan Guru-guru Sekolah Minggu terkasih, inilah gambar-gambar si anak beruang “Winnie the Pooh” dan sahabat-sahabatnya.

Setiap gambar memiliki kisah yang tak habis-habisnya. Ajaklah anak-anak kita mewarnainya sambil mendengarkan cerita Anda. Mari, jadikan Sekolah Mingu kita kian ceria dan bermakna.

Selamat melayani!

BUKU MEWARNA: KISAH SNOW WHITE

Snow White adalah salah satu kisah klasik yang paling digemari di segala masa dan di berbagai bangsa.

Pesan moral dalam kisah ini pun layak disampaikan bagi anak-anak kita. Mari mewarnai sambil belajar. Jadikan kelas lebih ceria & bervarisai dengan gambar-gambar kartun dari kisah putri Snow White.

PERMAINAN UNTUK ANAK ANAK: SCHOOLROOM GAMES

Sebuah kategori bahan ajar sekolah minggu saya tambahkan, yaitu “Permainan Anak”. Kategori ini berisi ratusan pola permainan, lengkap dengan petunjuk memainkannya. Sajiannya diberikan dalam beberapa jenis permainan seperti permainan di dalam ruangan, permainan di luar ruangan, permainan untuk anak yang lebih besar, dan sebagainya.

Jika rekan-rekan pecinta anak-anak, orang tua, guru sekolah minggu, atau pelayan dan pembina anak menemukan bahwa tulisannya dalam bahasa Inggris dan kesulitan memahaminya, jangan buru-buru putus asa; ada cara mudah mengatasinya.

Begini cara menerjemahkannya ke dalam bahasa Indonesia:

  1. Arahkan kursor Anda ke menu “TRANSLATE TO YOUR LANGUAGE” di bagian kanan atas halaman ini. Silakan pilih bendera SELAIN bahasa Inggris dengan mengklik benderanya. Ingat, jangan pilih bendera untuk bahasa Inggris, pilih saja bahasa China, Jepang, Jerman atau apa saja asal bukan bahasa Inggris.
  2. Kemudian semua tulisan akan diterjemahkan ke bahasa yang Anda pilih. Perhatikan, di bagian teratas halaman akan muncul “Google Terjemahan”. Perhatikan bagian tengah kolom pilihan yang tersedia di baris kedua. Pada bagian itu terdapat kotak untuk menentukan pilihan “Terjemahan dari: …… ” dan “Terjemahan ke: …… “
  3. Pilih menu di kotak “Terjemahan dari: …… ” dan pilih menu bahasa yang tadinya Anda pilih, untuk diterjemahkan kembali ke Bahasa Indonesia dengan menentukan pilihan “Bahasa Indonesia” di kotak “Terjemahan ke: …… “, lalu klik kotak bertulisan “Terjemahkan”.
  4. Memang terjemahannya tidak sempurna, tapi biasanya sudah bisa dipahami. OK, sekarang mari kita lihat & nikmati saja sajian aneka permainan di bawah ini.

Pada bagian pertama, saya tampilkan aneka permainan yang dikumpulkan oleh:

GEORGE O. DRAPER

Secretary for Health and Recreation, County Work Department of the International Committee of Young Men’s Christian Associations.

SCHOOLROOM GAMES

For Primary Pupils

Cat and Mouse

One pupil is designated to play the role of cat, another that of mouse. The mouse can escape the cat by sitting in the seat with some other pupil. Thereupon that pupil becomes mouse. Should the cat tag a mouse before it sits in a seat, the mouse becomes cat and the cat becomes mouse, and the latter must get into a seat to avoid being tagged.

Aviation Meet

Three pupils constitute a team. Two are mechanicians, one the aviator. Each team is to have a piece of string about 25 feet long, free from knots. A small cornucopia of paper is placed upon each string. The mechanicians hold the ends of the string while the aviator, at the signal to go, blows the cornucopia along the string. The string must be held level by the mechanicians. The aviator first succeeding in doing this, wins for his team.

Button, Button

The pupils sit or stand in a circle with their hands in front of them, palms together. The one who has been selected to be “It” takes a position in the center of the circle, with his hands in a similar position. A button is held between his hands. He goes around the circle and places his hand over those of various individuals, dropping the button into the hands of one. He continues about the circle, still making the motions of dropping the button in the hands of others, so as to deceive those making up the ring. After he has taken his place in the center of the circle, those in the ring endeavor to guess into whose hands he has dropped the button, the one succeeding in doing this takes the button and continues the game.

Bee

Some object is determined upon for hiding, such as a coin, a button, a thimble, etc. A pupil is sent from the room. During his absence the object is hidden. Upon his return the children buzz vigorously when he is near to the object sought and very faintly when he is some distance away. The object is located by the intensity of the buzzing.

Hide in Sight

In this game all of the pupils except one are sent from the room. The one left in the room hides a coin, or some similar object, somewhere in plain sight. It must be visible without having to move any object. When hidden, the rest of the pupils are called back and start the search. When a pupil finds the coin, after attempting to mislead the others by continuing his search in different quarters, he returns to his seat without disclosing its whereabouts. As it is found by others, the group of seekers will gradually diminish until there is but one left. When he finds it, the coin is again hidden by the one first finding it.

Colors

A certain color is determined upon. Each pupil in turn must name some object which is of that color. Failing to do this he goes to the foot of the line, provided some one beyond him can think of any object of that color. If no more objects can be thought of, a new color is selected.

I See Red

One pupil is given the privilege of thinking of some object in the room, of which he discloses the color to the rest of the pupils. For example, if he sees a red apple he says, “I see red.” Thereupon the other pupils endeaver to guess what red object in the room is thought of. The one succeeding, next selects the object to be guessed.

Hide the Clock

This is a good quiet game for the schoolroom. A loud ticking clock is necessary for the game. All of the pupils are sent from the room. One of their number is selected to hide the clock. The others, upon coming back, try to locate it by its ticking. The one succeeding has the privilege of next hiding the clock.

Poison Seat

The children all endeavor to shift seats at the clapping of the hands of the teacher. Have one less seat than pupils, so that one may be left without a seat. This can be arranged by placing a book on one seat and calling this “Poison Seat.” The child sitting on this seat is “poisoned” and out of the game. Add a book to a seat after each change, so as to eliminate one player each time. The one left after all have been eliminated, wins the game. Should the teacher clap her hands twice in succession, that is the signal for all of the pupils to return to their own seats.

Aisle Hunt

Some object—a coin will do—is selected to be hidden. The children of one of the aisles leave the room, the others determine upon a hiding place and hide the coin in plain sight. Those out of the room are called back and look for the hidden object. As soon as it is found, the first one finding it goes to his seat and calls, “First.” He is not to call until he is actually in his seat. The second one to find it returns to his seat and calls, “Second,” and so on until it has been found by all in the aisle. If there are six aisles in the room, the occupants of the first six seats in the aisle seeking the hidden object determine which aisle leaves the room next. For illustration,—if the pupil in the second seat is the first one to find the object, then the second aisle of the room will be the one to leave the room for the next hunt. Likewise if the pupil of the third seat is the first to find the object, the third aisle will be the one which next has the privilege of enjoying the hunt. If there are more pupils in the aisle than there are aisles in the room, the pupils in the last seats do not count.

New Orleans

The pupils of the room are divided into two groups. One side decides upon some action it will represent, such as sawing wood, washing clothes, etc., and thereupon represents the action. The other group has five chances to guess what the first group is trying to represent. Failing to do this, they must forfeit one of their players to the second group and the same side again represents an action.

When a group presents an action to the others, the following dialogue takes place:

First Group: Here we come.
Second Group: Where from?
First Group: New Orleans.
Second Group: What’s your trade?
First Group: Lemonade.
Second Group: How is it made?

The first group then represents the action.

Birds Fly

This is an attention game. The teacher stands before the class and instructs them that if she mentions some bird or object which flies and raises her arms sideward, imitating the flapping of the wings of a bird, the pupils are to follow her example. But if she mentions some animal or some object which does not fly, she may raise her arms sideward and upward, imitating the flying position, but the pupils are not to follow her example. If they are caught doing so, they must take their seats. For example,—the teacher says, “Owls fly”. Thereupon she and all the children raise their arms sideward and upward. She says, “Bats fly” and raises her arms. She next says, “Lions fly” and raises her arms, thereupon the pupils are supposed to keep their arms at their sides.

Music Rush

A march is played on the piano and the children march from their seats in single file around the room. As soon as the music stops, all rush to get into their seats. The last one in, must remain in his seat during the second trial. If there is no piano in the room, drumming on the top of a desk will do as well.

Change Seat Relay

The teacher claps her hands. This is the signal for all to shift one seat back. The one in the rear seat runs forward and sits in the front seat. The first aisle to become properly seated wins one point. Again the hands are clapped and the pupils shift one seat back, and the one then at the rear runs forward and takes the front seat and so the game continues until all have run forward from the back seat to the front. The aisle scoring the largest number of points wins.

Charlie over the Water

This is an old game and is always popular. The children form a ring, joining hands. One is selected to be “It” and takes his place in the center. Those in the ring then dance around, singing,

“Charlie, over the water,
Charlie, over the sea,
Charlie, catch a blackbird,
But can’t catch me.”

Having completed these lines, they all assume a stooping position before “Charlie,” who is “It,” can tag them. If he succeeds in tagging one, that one takes his place in the circle and the game continues.

Tap Relay

The pupils of each aisle constitute a team. All bend their heads forward, placing their faces in the palms of their hands on the top of the desk. At the signal to go, given by the teacher, the one in the last seat in each aisle sits up, claps his hands and taps the back of the one in front of him, which is the signal for the one in front to sit up, clap, and tap the one next in front of him, and so the tap is passed until it reaches the one in the front seat of the aisle, who, upon being tapped, stands up, clapping his hands above his head. The first to stand and clap hands above head wins the race.

Rat-a-tat Race

Similar to the preceding race with the exception that upon the signal to go the one in the back seat knocks with the knuckles of his right hand on the top of the desk a “rat-tat, rat-tat-tat,” as in a drum beat, and then taps with the knuckles the back of the one next in front of him, who repeats the performance, tapping off the one in front, and so on. The race ends when the individual in the front seat of an aisle taps the “rat-tat, rat-tat-tat” and stands up.

Bowing Race

A book is handed to the pupil in the last seat of each aisle. At the signal to go the pupils holding the book step into the aisle at the right hand side of their desks, holding the books on the tops of their heads with both hands, and make a bow. Then returning to their seats, hit the book on the top of the desk and pass it on to the next one in front, who repeats the performance, as does every one else in the aisle. The one in the front seat of the aisle finishes the race by bowing with the book upon his head, then running forward, and placing the book upon the teacher’s desk.

Spin Around Race

A boy is selected from each aisle to take his place at least six feet in front of the aisle. Upon the signal to go, the last boy in each aisle runs forward to the right of his desk and links his left arm in the right arm of the boy standing in front of his aisle, and in this position spins around twice, returning to his seat, and tagging off the boy next in front of him, who repeats the performance. The last boy in the aisle to spin around ends the race when he has returned to a sitting position in his seat.

SCHOOLROOM GAMES

For Intermediate Pupils

Initial Tag

A pupil who is “It” is sent to the board. He writes thereupon the initial of some other pupil in the room. That pupil is to try to tag “It” before he can return to his seat. If successful, he becomes “It” and continues the game by writing some one else’s initial on the board.

Magic Music

One pupil is sent from the room. Thereupon the remaining pupils hide some object agreed upon. The pupil sent from the room is recalled. The teacher or one of the pupils plays the piano loudly when the seeker approaches the hidden article and softly when some distance from it. The seeker determines the location by the volume of the music.

Hunt the Rattler

All of the players in the room are blindfolded, except one, who is given a tin can in which is placed a loose pebble. He is known as the “rattler.” The blindfolded players attempt to locate and tag the rattler by the rattle. The one successful takes the place of the rattler.

Sticker

The pupils stand in a circle in the center of which is “It” blindfolded, holding in his hand a blunt stick about 12 or 15 inches long. Those in the circle dance around two or three times, so that the blindfolded player may not know their position. At the command “Stand,” given by the one blindfolded, all must stand still. Thereupon, by feeling with his stick, “It” tries to discern an individual in the ring. “It” is forbidden to use his hands, in trying to discover who the individual is. If he succeeds in guessing, the individual guessed must take his place. Otherwise he proceeds to some other individual in the circle whom he tries to identify.

Name Race

The pupils of each aisle constitute a team. A slip is handed to the one in the first seat in each row. At the signal to go, he writes his full name thereupon and passes it immediately to the one next behind him, who writes his name and passes it on. When the one in the last seat in the row has added his name to the slip, he rushes forward and places the slip upon the teacher’s desk. The aisle first succeeding in accomplishing this task, wins.

Frogs in Sea

One pupil sits in tailor fashion in the center of the playing space. The others try to tease him by approaching as closely as they dare, calling him “Frog in the sea, Can’t catch me.” If the frog succeeds in tagging any of the other players, that player must take his place. The frog is not allowed to change from his sitting position in his effort to tag the other players.

Corner Spry

The pupils in the room are divided into four equal teams. Each team is assigned to a different corner. A leader stands in front of each team with a bean bag, cap, or ball. At the signal to start the leader tosses to and receives from each member of his team in turn the bean bag. Having received the bag from the last one in his line, he takes his place at the foot of the line, and the one at the head of the line becomes leader and proceeds to toss the ball to each member as did the preceding leader. The group, in which all have served as leaders and which successfully completes the game first, wins.

Flag Race

The pupils of each aisle constitute a team. Flags are given to the pupils in each front seat. On the signal to go, each pupil holding a flag steps out on the right hand side of the seat, runs around the front of his own aisle, back on the left hand side, around the rear seat, returning to his own seat up the right hand aisle, and hands the flag on to the one next behind him, who continues the race. When all the pupils in the aisle have circled their row of seats with the flag, the last one, instead of returning to his seat, runs forward and holds the flag above his head in front of his aisle. The one first succeeding in reaching the front, wins the race.

In this race it is often better to run two aisles at a time and thus avoid the possibility of pupils bumping into each other in their attempt to race through the aisles. In this way the various winners can race against each other, making an interesting contest.

Seat Vaulting Tag

A pupil is selected to be “It.” He attempts to tag any other pupil in the same aisle in which he stands. The pupils avoid being tagged by vaulting over the seats. No one is allowed to run around either end. “It” cannot reach across the desk in his effort to tag another. He must be in the same aisle or tag as one is vaulting a seat. A pupil becomes “It” as soon as tagged.

Jerusalem, Jericho, Jemima

This is a simple game of attention. The three words in the title are near enough alike to require close attention on the part of the pupil to distinguish between them and to act accordingly. Have the pupils turn in their seats facing the aisle. If the teacher says “Jerusalem”, the pupils stand. If she says, “Jericho”, they raise their arms momentarily forward and upward. If she says, “Jemima”, they sit down. Any child making a mistake sits in her seat and faces to the front.

Compass

An attention game. The pupils stand in the aisle beside their seats. In starting the game, the teacher asks them to face to the north, then to the south, then to the east, and to the west, so that they have the directions fixed in their minds. She then proceeds to tell a story or to make statements such as the following, “I came from the north.” At the mention of the word “north” all the pupils must turn and face towards the north. “But since I have arrived in the south,”—at the mention of the word “south” they all turn and face the south, etc. If the teacher should say “wind,” the pupils imitate the whistling of the wind; if “whirlwind” is mentioned, all must spin about on their heels a complete turn. Failing to do any of the required turns, the pupil takes his seat.

Geography

The pupils of each aisle constitute a team. Those in the front seats are Number 1, those next behind them, Number 2, and so on back. The teacher calls some number. The pupils having that number race to the board and write thereupon the name of some river, returning to their seats. The first one back wins one point for his team. The game continues until all the numbers have been called, the team having the most points wins.

Spelling Words

Have the pupils in aisle 1 face those in aisle 2, those in aisle 3 face 4, those in aisle 5 face 6. Appoint a captain for each aisle. The captain of one team starts spelling a word containing more than three letters. The captain of the team facing his, adds the second letter, not knowing what word the captain of the other team had in mind. The second man of the first team adds a third letter; the second man of the second team adds a fourth, each team trying to avoid completing the word. The team completing the word loses one point to the other team. For example, the first man of team A says “g,” the first man of team B says “o,” thinking of “gold.” The second man on team A says “o,” thinking of “goose.” The second man on team B can only think of “good” and contributes “d,” ending the word. Team A thereupon scores a point. The third man of team A continues the game by starting another word. When the ends of the aisles are reached the word, if uncompleted, is passed to the head of the line and continued.

If there are four aisles in the room, there will be two groups playing at the same time; six aisles, three groups; eight aisles, four groups. The captains of opposing teams keep a record of the score.

Rhymes

This game stimulates quick thinking. Some one is selected by the teacher to start the game, and thereupon gives some word to which the first pupil in the aisle must give a rhyming word before the former can count ten. Failing to do this, the leader continues and gives a word to the second one in the aisle. The rhyming words are to be given before the leader has completed his count of ten. Then the one succeeding in giving the word replaces the leader.

Clapping Song

A pupil is selected by the teacher to clap the rhythm of some familiar air. The rest of the children in the room endeavor to guess the song clapped. The pupil succeeding in doing this is given an opportunity to clap another song.

Indian Trail

A pupil is blindfolded and placed in the front of the room. Other pupils, one or two at a time, are given the opportunity to stealthily approach the one blindfolded, in an endeavor to take some object, from before his feet, such as a flower pot and saucer, or a tin can with a loose pebble in it, without being detected by the one blindfolded. If a pupil succeeds in taking back the object to his seat without having been heard, he wins a point for his aisle. Where two pupils are sent forward at the same time, two similar objects must be placed at the foot of the one blindfolded. The aisle scoring the largest number of points in this way wins the game.

Number Relay

The pupils of each aisle constitute a team. They are numbered, beginning with the one in the first seat. The teacher describes some mathematical problem she desires done and calls certain numbers. All the pupils having those numbers rush to the board and compute the problem. The first back to his seat wins a point for his team, the aisle gaining the largest number of points wins the game.

Multiplication Race

The pupils of each aisle constitute a team. The teacher decides on a multiplication table which is to be placed upon the board. A piece of chalk is handed to the first pupil in each aisle. At the signal to go Number 1 goes to the board and writes the first example in the multiplication table thereupon. Returning to his seat, he hands the chalk to the one next behind him, who puts the next step in the multiplication table on the board, and so the race continues until the one in the last seat has returned to his seat, after adding his part to the table. The one first back to his seat wins for his aisle.

History Race

Similar to the preceding, with the exception that the pupils are requested to write upon the board the name of some historical personage or some historical event, date, etc.

Poem Race

The pupils having learned some poem may use it in a game in the following way:

The pupils of each aisle constitute a team. At the signal to go the last pupil in each aisle stands up and recites the first line of the poem, returns to his seat and taps the one next in front of him, who stands up and repeats the second line of the poem, sits down and taps off the third pupil, who repeats the third line, and so the game continues. If the poem has not been completed after the one in the front seat has said his line, he taps the one next behind him, and that one is supposed to give the next line and so on back. The aisle first completing a poem wins the race.

If the poem be a very small one, words of the poem instead of lines may be used. If it be a long one, verses instead of lines may be used.

Last Man

This is a good active game thoroughly enjoyed by the children. The teacher selects one pupil to be “It,” and another to be chased. The one chased can stand at the rear of any aisle and say, “Last man.” Thereupon the front pupil in that aisle is subject to being tagged by “It” and leaves his seat. All the other pupils in that aisle advance one seat and the first man chased sits down in the last seat in the aisle. “It” tries to tag the man who left the front seat before he can go to the rear of any of the aisles. Should he succeed in doing so, he can immediately be tagged back if he does not hurry to the rear of some aisle and say “Last man.”

(Caution: Should any child appear fatigued when “It,” substitute another child in his place).

Change Seats

This is a good relaxation game. The teacher says, “Change seats left.” Thereupon all the pupils shift to the seats to their left. The children who are in the last aisle on the left must run around the room and occupy the vacant seats on the right hand side. Should the teacher say, “Change seats right,” the reverse of the proceeding is necessary. The teacher can also say, “Change seats front,” or “Change seats rear,” and the pupils are expected to obey the commands. Those left without seats must run to the other end of the room and take any seat found vacant there.

Relay Run Around

The pupils of each aisle constitute a team. The pupil in the last seat in each row, upon the signal to go, steps out in the right hand aisle, runs forward around the front of his row of seats, back on the left hand side, circling the rear seat, and sits down, touching off the next pupil in front of him, who repeats the performance. The aisle first accomplishing the run, wins.

SCHOOLROOM GAMES

For Advanced and High School Pupils

Geography

The group is divided into two equal teams. A leader is chosen for each. The leader of Team A begins the game by giving the name of a country beginning with the letter “A” (Austria). The leader of Team B gives another country beginning with “A”. The second member of Team A, another; the second member of Team B, another; until one of the teams cannot think of any more countries beginning with “A”. That team last thinking of a country wins one point. The other members of the team can help their team mate, whose turn it is, by suggesting other countries. The member of the team failing to name a country beginning with “A”, starts with the letter “B” and the game continues, until one team has won ten points. The names of rivers, mountains, states, cities, etc., can be substituted for the names of countries.

Seeing and Remembering

Fifteen or twenty articles are placed upon a table under a sheet, in front of the pupils. The sheet is removed for a space of 10 seconds and the pupils are given a good chance to study the articles on the table. After the sheet has again covered the articles, each pupil is requested to write as many of the articles as can be remembered, on a sheet of paper. The one remembering the largest number wins.

Definitions

The teacher selects some word from the dictionary, which is written upon the blackboard. Each pupil then writes the definition of that word on a slip of paper. After this is done, the teacher compares the definition with that in the dictionary. The one giving the definition nearest like that in the dictionary wins, and gives the next word to be defined.

Jumbled Words

The pupils of each aisle constitute a team. Each pupil in the aisle is given a number. The one in each front seat is Number 1, the one behind him Number 2, and so on back. The teacher has prepared a different sentence for each aisle with just as many words in it as there are pupils in the aisle. One of these slips is handed to Number 1 of each team. Number 1 takes the first word of the sentence as his word, Number 2 the second, Number 3 the third, and so on. When the last one in the aisle has learned the last word in the sentence, the slips are returned to the teacher. Competition can be added to this phase of the game by seeing which aisle can return the slip to the teacher first.

When the slips have all been turned in, the teacher calls any number. Thereupon the pupils in each aisle having that number, go to the blackboard and write distinctly their word from the sentence. For example, the teacher calls Number 3. Number 3 of aisle 1 had the word “money”; Number 3 of aisle 2 “can,” etc.

Next the teacher calls Number 5. All the Number 5’s go to the blackboard and write their words directly after those written by their previous team mate. When all the numbers have been called there is a jumbled sentence on the board for each aisle. The pupils of the various aisles then try to guess what the sentences of the other aisles are. Each one guessed, counts 5 points.

Descriptive Adjectives

An historical personage is selected, such as Columbus, George Washington, etc. The first pupil called upon must describe the subject with a descriptive adjective beginning with “A”. The second, third, and fourth, etc., adding to this description by using adjectives beginning with the letter “A”. This continues until the adjectives beginning with the letter “A” have been exhausted. Then the letter “B” is used and the game continues. It is well to change the subject after every fourth or fifth letter. This is a good game for adding to the vocabulary of the pupil. A little fun can be had by using, instead of an historical subject, one of the pupils of the room for description.

Store

The pupils of each aisle constitute a team. The one in the front seat in each aisle is Number 1, the one behind him, Number 2, etc.

The teacher has a number of cards upon each of which appears a letter of the alphabet. The teacher holds up one of these letters so that it can be distinctly seen by the pupils. Number 1 of each aisle must name some article sold in a grocery store, beginning with the letter held up by the teacher. (For example,—the teacher holds up the letter “F”; Number 1 of the second aisle calls, “Flour”). The pupil first naming an article of that letter is given the card containing the letter. The next card held up, the number 2’s of each team are to name the article, and likewise the winner to be awarded the card. The aisle having the most cards at the end of the game wins.

The letters can be written on the blackboard if the cards are not available for the game and points awarded to each winner. The game can also be used with birds, animals, and other subjects in place of articles sold in a store. This is a good game to stimulate quick thinking.

Distinguishing Sounds

This game is good training for the ear. Various noises, such as the shaking of a pebble in a tin can, in a wooden box, in a pasteboard box, in a large envelope; knocking on wood, on tin, on coin (as silver dollar), on stone, on brass, on lead,—are made. The pupils are allowed to guess just what the noise is caused by.

Laugh

This is a good relaxing game and one in which the practice of self control is a factor. An open handkerchief is tossed into the air. While it is in the air the pupils are to laugh as heartily as they can, but the instant the handkerchief touches the floor, all laughing is to stop.

Guessing Dimensions

The ability to measure with the eye is well worth cultivating. Each pupil is to guess the distance between various points indicated on the blackboard, the height of a door, the width and the height of a school desk, the height of the schoolroom, the thickness of a book, etc. Each of the guesses is written on a slip of paper. The pupil with the best guesses wins.

Mysterious Articles

An article is concealed under a cloth on the table. Each pupil is given an opportunity to feel the article through the cloth and guess what it is, educating the sense of touch.

Distinguishing by Smell

Various articles invisible to the eye, with distinctive odors, such as vinegar, rose, mustard, vanilla, ginger, clove, tea, coffee, chocolate, soap, etc., are placed before the pupil. The one able to distinguish the largest number of articles by the smell, wins the game.

Art Gallery

Pictures of a number of famous paintings by the masters are placed on exhibition. The pupil guessing the largest number of masters and titles, of the various pictures, wins.

Drawing Animals

The teacher whispers in the ear of each pupil the name of some animal, whereupon the pupil proceeds to draw that animal, each pupil being given the name of a different animal. Drawings are made and put on exhibition. All try to guess as many as possible of the animals represented in the drawings. The drawing securing the largest number of correct guesses wins for the artist.

Historical Pictures

A long sheet of paper is given to each pupil, with instructions to draw thereupon a picture representing some historical event. After completing the drawing, each paper is passed about the room. Each pupil writes underneath the picture what he thinks the picture represents. His subject is folded under, so that the next pupil to receive the picture cannot see what his guess has been. At the end of the game, the picture having the largest number of correct guesses wins.

Train of Thoughts

A word is suggested by the teacher. This is written at the top of a sheet of paper by each pupil. The pupil then writes beneath that word various thoughts that are suggested to him by the word. For instance, the word suggested by the teacher is “aeroplane”. Pupil A has suggested to him by the word “aeroplane”, humming. He writes that on his list. Humming suggests bees. Bees suggest honey; honey, clover, clover summer, summer swimming hole, etc. When all of the pupils have written fifteen or twenty thoughts which have suggested themselves to them, each is called upon to read his train of thoughts to the rest of the class.

Bowknot Relay

The pupils of each aisle constitute a team. A piece of string is given to each pupil in the front seat. At a signal to start each pupil with the string runs forward and ties it in a bowknot on some article placed in front of each aisle. After tying the bow, he returns to his seat and touches the one in the seat next behind him. Thereupon the second member of the team runs, unties the bowknot, returns with the string; and hands it to the third, who runs forward, and ties it in a bowknot, as did the first, and returning touches off the fourth, etc. The aisle in which each pupil has accomplished the required task first, wins the race.

Cooking Race

This is a good game for the class in domestic science. The pupils of each aisle constitute a team. A piece of chalk is handed to the one in each front seat. At the signal to go, the chalk is passed back until it reaches the one in the last seat in the row. Every one in the aisle must have handled the chalk in passing it back. Upon receiving it, the last one in the row runs forward to the board and writes thereupon an ingredient necessary in the making of cake. Returning, the chalk is handed to the one in the front seat and again passed back until it gets to the one in the next to the last seat, who rushes to the board and writes another ingredient necessary in cake making. And so the race continues. When the last pupil at the board, namely the one from the front seat, has written upon the board and returned to her seat, the race is ended. The race is won by the aisle first completing this task.

Spelling Game

The group, if numbering 40 or more pupils, is divided into two teams. The contestants of each team are given a different letter of the alphabet. The teacher gives a word. Thereupon the pupils in both teams whose letter occurs in the word named, run one to the front and one to the rear of the room, as assigned by the teacher, and take their places in the order in which their letter occurs in the word. When the pupils have taken their proper position, they call out the letters they represent, spelling the word. The group first accomplishing this, wins one point for their team. If the letter occurs twice in the same word, that pupil representing that letter takes his place where the letter first occurs in the word and shifts to the second position, so as to help complete the word.

If the group be too small for two alphabets the game can be played by having but one and seeing which of the various words given is formed in the quickest time by the single group.

Grammar Race

The pupils of each aisle constitute a team. A piece of chalk is given to the one in each front seat. At the signal to go, the one with the chalk rushes to the board and writes the first word of a sentence on the board and returns to his seat, passing the chalk on to the second one, who writes the second word for a sentence. The third writes the third, and so on until a complete sentence has been written upon the board. The one in the last seat must complete the sentence and return to his seat, ending the race.

Twenty-five points is awarded the team finishing first; twenty-five points to each team with correct spelling; twenty-five points for the team with the best writing; twenty-five points for the best composition of the sentence.

Schoolroom Tag

A three foot circle is made with a piece of chalk in the front of the room. Each pupil in the room is given a different number. The teacher selects one to be “It,” who must stand at least ten feet from the circle and be touching a side wall. “It” calls a number. The pupil whose number is called tries to run through the circle in the front of the room and get back to his seat without being tagged by “It”. The one who is “It” must run through the circle before he can tag the one whose number he called. If the pupil is tagged he becomes “It”.

Directions

An attention game. Taking for granted that the pupils have a general knowledge of the directions of various towns or cities in their state or the surrounding states, the following game can be played.

All are requested to stand in the aisle beside their seats. The teacher then proceeds to make statements or tell some story, mentioning the names of various cities and towns. At the mention of these the pupils face in the direction in which said cities or towns are located. Failing to turn correctly when a city is mentioned the pupil is required to take his seat.

BUKU MEWARNA SERI BINATANG 3: DINOSAURUS

Dinosaurus merupakan salah satu jenis gambar yang disenangi anak-anak. Setelah sebelumnya, pada Buku Mewarna Seri Binatang 2 kita mewarnai gambar-gambar anjing, berikut ini disajikan puluhan gambar aneka jenis Dinosaurus dalam Buku Mewarna Seri Binatang 3.

Rekan-rekan guru sekolah minggu sebaiknya juga mempelajari sedikit-sedikit nama jenis-jenis Dinosaurus agar jangan ketinggalan. Namun jika ternyata anak-anak kita lebih banyak tahu, jangan kaget! Sebab dengan minat tinggi serta fokus lebih baik, lazim saja jika anak-anak lebih banyak tahu tentang Dinosaurus. Saya pun pernah mengalaminya dan terheran-heran pada pengetahuan keponakan saya yang penggila Dinosaurus. Tak mengapa, sekali-sekali baik juga kita belajar dari mereka dan berbagi mengenai apa-apa yang mereka tahu.

Semoga kelas Anda semakin menyenangkan!

BUKU MEWARNA SERI BINATANG 2: ANJING

Anjing adalah binatang peliharaan yang dikenal setia dan cerdas. Teman bermain, sahabat dan bahkan penjaga yang baik.

Buku Mewarnai Seri Binatang yang kedua berisi aneka gambar anjing. Mari sama-sama belajar Firman Tuhan dalam sukacita!

BUKU MEWARNA: SERI BINATANG 1

Kali ini saya siapkan 20 buah gambar binatang untuk diwarnai. Jika anak-anak mau, mereka bisa menambahkan gambar apa saja di lembaran yang diberikan Guru Sekolah Minggu, bukan hanya mewarnai gambar yang ada.

Selamat melayani, selamat mewarnai!

BAHASA ISYARAT (ABJAD ANGKA DAN HURUF AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE) BAGIAN 2

Berikut ini abjad sesuai sistem ASL. Gambar yang melambangkan abjad A-Z dan angka ini, sebenarnya merupakan tambahan saja, digunakan untuk menyusun kata, nama tempat, nama orang, jumlah yang belum ada lambang isyarat tangannya.

Untuk mempelajari dengan lebih menyenangkan, ada saya cantumkan contoh words puzzle versi abjad bahasa isyarat. Dengan gambar-gambar yang terpisah ini, diharapkan Anda mampu menyusun sendiri kata atau membuat teka-teki yang menyenangkan.

Selamat mencoba.

BAHASA ISYARAT (AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE) BAGIAN 1

Di Indonesia saat ini telah berkembang beberapa macam bahasa isyarat, antara lain SIBI, Bisindo dan kombinasi antara keduanya serta beberapa lagi tercampur dengan bahasa isyarat yang paling banyak digunakan secara Internasional yaitu ASL (American Sign Language).

Kebetulan dari beberapa rekan, bahan yang saya peroleh yaitu bahan-bahan ASL, namun tidak menutup kemungkinan setelah bahan baku untuk SIBI dan BISINDO telah diperoleh, akan saya masukkan juga dalam posting berikutnya. Mohon jika teman-teman yang membaca memiliki bahan-bahannya, mohon berbagi dengan mengirim email ke: mosesforesto@gmail.com.

Untuk sementara ini saya sampaikan nbagian berupa gambar sketsa bahasa isyarat ASL yang sempat terkumpul (sekitar 150 kata).

Selamat mempelajari.

Berikut ini akan saya tambahkan juga sebagian tulisan singkat dari Rndang Rusyani mengenai Sistem Komunikasi Tunarungu.

Berikut kutipannya.

Latar Belakang

Ketidak puasan terhadap oral dan manual

– Tidak semua ATR dapat mengembangkan cara berkomunikasi dengan berbicara

– Esensi komunikasi, pesan dapat tersampai kan dengan utuh, tanpa harus dengan cara tertentu

– Komunikasi cara oral merupakan ciri khas manusia pada umumnya

HAKEKAT KOMUNIKASI DAN BAHASA

Komunikasi adalah  keberhasilan dalam menyampaikan pesan/pikiran/gagasan seseorang kepada orang lain.

Bahasa kode dimana gagasan/ide tentang dunia/lingkungan sekitar diwakili oleh seperangkat simbol yang telah disepakati bersama guna mengadakan komunikasiBagaimana anak memperoleh penguasaan bahasa.

Kemampuan berbahasa tidak diperoleh melalui penularan begitu saja (kematangan) dan juga tidak melalui diajar secara khusus (language is neither caught nor taught).Bahasa ibu dikuasai anak mendengar apabila terdapat dua kondisi terpenuhi, yaitu:

• Akses terhadap bahasa dalam jumlah yang besar.

Kata pertama yang diucapkan anak adalah kata ”mama.” Mengapa ? kata tersebut mudah dilafalkan, paling sering diucapkan kepada anak. Dalam satu minggu, diucapkan sampai 3000 kali

• Adanya kesempatan untuk berinteraksi secara aktif.

Hasil penelitian  A. Trip menunjukkan bahwa akses kebahasaan yang banyak tidak akan menumbuhkan penguasaan bahasa tanpa ada kesempatan interaksi (percakapan) yang aktif dengan lingkungannya.

Kondisi-kondisi optimal untuk mengembangkan kemampuan berbahasa:

1. Akses terhadap sejumlah besar bahasa. Anak tunarungu  ringan dan sedang gunakan ABM, untuk yang berat dapat menggunakan isyarat

2.   Masukkan bahasa yang diperoleh anak harus lengkap. Gunakan kalimat singkat, sederhana tetapi lengkap dari segi tata bahasanya,

3.   Orangtua/guru harus menggunakan bahasa yang berada sedikit di atas taraf kemampuan bahasa anak, dan jangan terlalu disederhanakan

4. Masukkan bahasa harus diberikan dalam konteks atau situasi komunikasi yang jelas,

5. Agar anak dapat memahami interaksi yang terjadi. ajak berbicara mengenai hal-hal yang konkrit di lingkungannya, kemudian tingkatkan kepada pembicaraan yang abstrak agar anak dapat memahami pembicaraan yang di luar konteks, tetapi pada tahap awal konteks harus jelas

6. Masukkan informasi harus berlangsung secara konsisten. Harus ada orang yang menguasai bahasa yang digunakan  dalam berinterkasi dengan anak. Misalnya, untuk anak tunarungu berat harus ada orang yang menguasai sistem isyarat supaya masukkan bahasa lengkap dan konsisten

Permasalahan Kebahasaan Anak Tunarungu

• Anak Tunarungu tidak dapat atau kurang mampu berbicara dengan baik. Berbicara bukan satu-satunya cara untuk berkomunikasi, karena bicara merupakan salah satu cara dari sekian cara berkomunikasi,

• Permasalahan utama Anak Tunarungu bukan pada ketidak-mampuannya dalam berkomunikasi melainkan akibat dari hal tersebut terhadap perkembangan kemampuan berbahasanya, yaitu ketidakmampuan untuk memahami lambang dan aturan bahasa.

PENGERTIAN KOMUNIKASI TOTAL

• Suatu cara komunikasi yang memanfaatkan segala media komunikasi ( berbicara, membaca ujaran, menulis, membaca, mendengarkan, isyarat alamiah, isyarat baku, abjad jari, gerak tubuh, mimik dll yang dilakukan secara terpadu).

• Tujuan: Tercapai komunikasi yang efektif antara sesama tunarungu ataupun dengan masyarakat luas dengan menggunakan media berbicara, membaca bibir, mendengar dan berisyarat  Pengertian Sistem Isyarat Bahasa Indonesia

Salah satu media komunikasi sesama kaum tunarungu dalam bentuk tataan yang sistematis tentang seperangkat isyarat jari, tangan, dan berbagai gerak yang melambangkan kosa kata bahasa Indonesia

SEJARAH MEDIA KOMUNIKASI ANAK TUNARUNGU DI INDONESIA

  • · 1978 diawali oleh SLB Zinnia Jakarta
  • · 1981 diikuti oleh SLB Karya Mulya Surabaya
  • · Isyarat yang digunakan ASL yang diperkenalkan oleh Ibu Baron Sutadisastra

•1982  KKPLB Pusat Pengembangan Kurikulum dan sarana Pendidikan Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Dikbud merancang panduan penerapan Komtal.

•1986 kegiatan pengembangan terhenti

•1989 dilanjutkan lagi oleh KKPLB yang berkedudukan di IKIP Jakarta

•1989 SLB Karya Mulya telah menghasilkan Pedoman Isyarat Bahasa Indonesia

•1990 SLB Zinnia menerbitkan Kamus Dasar Basindo

•1990 KKPLB melahirkan Kamus Isyarat yang berdasarkan isyarat lokal yang berkembang di 11 lokasi

Tokoh-tokoh terkenal dalam dunia pendidikan AGP

Sejak abab ke 16 telah dikembangkan cara-cara komunikasi untuk AGP

Fedro Ponce de Leon.

Pada abad ke 16 tepatnya pada tahun 1510 – 1584 di Spanyol, Leon telah mengembangkan kemampuan berbahasa anak gangguan pendengaran agar dapat berbicara melalui tulisan dan membaca. Cara yang dikembangkan Leon ini dikenal dengan sebutan Metode Spanyol. Metode ini sampai sekarang sangat terkenal dan banyak digunakan di berbagai negara, termasuk di Indonesia.

Joe L’hanes Conrad Amman

Pada abad ke 17 tepatnya pada tahun 1669 – 1724 di Jerman, Amman mengembangkan kemampuan berbahasa anak yang mengalami gangguan pendengaran dengan menggunakan metode oral, pandangannya lebih modern dari pada Leon, beliau juga mengajar melalui membaca ujaran (speech reading).

Metode Amman ini terkenal dengan sebutan Metode Jerman, dan pada abad ke 18 sekolah-sekolah untuk anak-anak yang mengalami gangguan pendengaran bermunculan karena keberhasilan penggunaan metode oral tersebut.

Orang yang paling terkenal mengembangkan metode oral ini yaitu Samuel Heinicke (1727 – 1790)

Delgarno

Tahun 1680 Delgarno mengembangkan metode Dactylology.  Penggunaan ejaan jari (finger speeling) dengan satu tangan, dan dia juga mencita-citakan pengajaran bahasa ibu.

Penerus Delgarno yaitu Alexander Grahan Bell dari Amerika (1884). Bell menggunakan bentuk tulisan dari bahasa ibu, dan beliau juga yang menemukan gagasan pemakaian ABM.

Metodenya terkenal dengan sebutan Metode Aural, dan cara pengajarannya menggunakan metode okasional.

Charles Michel d L’ Epee

L’ Epee dari Perancis pada tahun 1712 – 1789 mengembangkan metode Isyarat. Pendapatnya, bahwa bahasa isyarat merupakan bahasa alamiah orang-orang yang mengalami gangguan pendengaran, walaupun dia memahami bahwa bahasa lisan merupakan bahasa yang paling sempurna. Metode L’ epee ini terkenal dengan sebutan Metode Perancis. Metodenya sampai sekarang banyak digunakan di hampir seluruh penjuru dunia Frederich Moritz Hill (1805 – 1874)

Orang yang menerapkan metode pengajaran bahasa untuk anak yang memiliki gangguan pendengaran dengan menggunakan prinsip-prinsip metode pengajaran untuk anak yang mendengar dari

Johann Heinnrich Pestalozzi’s (1746 – 1827), yaitu mother method. Motto mother method adalah ”teaching of spoken language is in everything”.

Pengaruh Hill tersebar dengan pesat di seluruh Eropa, kemudian menyebar ke Amerika Serikat, bahkan sampai saat ini di Amerika Serikat, yaitu di kota Nortthamptom dan Massashusetts

Sekolah oral yang sangat terkenal sejak jamannya Hill yaitu Clarke

School for The Deaf Johane Vatter

Tokoh pendidikan AGP yang sangat idealis dari Jerman pada tahun 1824 – 1916. Vatter memiliki cita-cita yang sangat ideal yaitu berharap AGP dapat belajar berpikir dengan bahasa verbal dan bercita-cita agar AGP dapat berkomunikasi di lingkungannya secara wajar layaknya orang-orang yang mendengar.

Vatter dalam pengajaran bahasanya menggunakan metode gramatikal Edmun Miner Gallaudet.

Gallaudet adalah seorang tokoh pendidikan AGP yang sangat terkenal dari Amerika Serikat pada tahun 1837 – 1917, dan pengaruhnya menyebar sampai saat ini ke seluruh penjuru dunia, termasuk ke Indonesia.

Gallaudet memberikan pendidikan kepada anak gangguan pendengaran dengan menggunakan media isyarat dan ejaan jari disamping bicara dan membaca ujaran.

Metode Gallaudet merupakan campuran yaitu mencampurkan metode bicara, membaca ujaran, isyarat dan ejaan jari dalam kegiatan pembelajaran. Metodenya disebut sebagai Combined System.

Hellen Keller

Keller adalah seorang tokoh yang sangat terkenal dan luar biasa, karena dia seorang yang memiliki kebutuhan khusus (mengalami gangguan pendengaran dan penglihatan) namun mampu menguasai bahasa verbal secara sempurna melalui penggunaan abjad tangan dan tulisan braille, disamping itu dia juga menguasai bahasa lisan melalui penggunaan metode Tadoma

Dr. Ewing

Tokoh pendidikan AGP dari Inggris yang bernama Ewing (1947), dia memelopori penangan dini bagi pendidikan AGP (Pendidikan Usia Dini bagi AGP),  Pada tahun 1957 diikuti oleh seorang tokoh pendidikan dari negeri Balanda yaitu  Van Uden.

Uden seorang tokoh terkenal Metode Maternal Reflektif dalam mengembangkan bahasa untuk AGP dengan menggunakan Model Penguasaan Bahasa Ibu.

Uden dalam memberikan pengalaman-pengalaman pembelajaran bahasanya kepada anak yang mengalami gangguan pendengaran menggunakan cara-cara yang biasa dilakukan oleh seorang ibu dalam melakukan percakapan dengan anaknya yang belum berbahasa.

Westerveld

Seorang tokoh pendidikan AGP dari Amerika. Westerveld terkenal dengan penemuannya dalam pengajaran bahasa untuk AGP dengan menggunakan metode oral yang dipadu dengan metode abjad jari (bukan isyarat),

Metodenya disebut sebagai Metode Rochester

TERMINOLOGI DAN PERKEMBANGAN SIBI

• Isyarat lokal adalah isyarat yang tumbuh dan berkembang pada komunitas tunarungu di wilayah Indonesia

• Isyarat serapan adalah isyarat yang diangkat dari isyarat-isyarat berkembang dari negara lain

• Isyarat temuan adalah isyarat-isyarat baru yang ditemukan pada saat ujicoba

• Isyarat tempaan adalah isyarat yang ditempa oleh KKPLB

• 1992 panduan dan isyarat yang dikembangkan KKPLB diujicoba di 5 SLB

• 1993 PPKSP BP3K memadukan isyarat yang dikembangkan oleh KKPLB, Karya Mulya dan Zinnia dan tersusun Draf Kamus Isyarat Bahasa Indonesia  LANJUTAN

• 1993 DEPDIKBUD mengeluarkan kebijakan untuk memadukan isyarat hasil karya pengembangan P2KSP BP3K, KKPLB, SLB Zinnia dan SLB Karya Mulya, lahirlah kamus baku yaitu Kamus Isyarat Nasional

• Selanjutnya disebut ISYANDO

SIBI

Pengertian

• Tataan yang sistematis mengenai seperangkat isyarat jari, tangan dan berbagai gerak yang melambangkan kosa kata bahasa Indonesia

Tujuan

•Salah satu cara untuk membantu kelancaran berkomunikasi sesama kaum tunarungu di dalam masyarakat yang lebih luas   METODE KOMUNIKASI ATR

• Kelompok yang meyakini media komunikasi oral yang paling tepat digunakan untuk mengembangkan potensi ATR disebut aliran oral atau oralisme,

• Kelompok yang meyakini media komunikasi isyarat yang paling tepat digunakan untuk mengembangkan potensi ATR disebut aliran manual atau manualisme,

• Kelompok campuran (combined system), mereka yang meyakini bahwa media komunikasi oral maupun manual dapat dimanfaatkan untuk mengembangkan potensi ATR  ORALISME

• Titik berat metode komunikasi oral dalam mengekspresikan gagasan/pikiran/ perasaan:

– Pengucapan/ ujaran

– Membaca ujaran (speech reading)

• Tujuan ATR diberikan metode komunikasi oral yaitu agar ATR baik dalam menerima pesan atau mengekspresikan gagasan, pikiran, dan perasaannya diharapkan melalui cara-cara yang lazim digunakan oleh anak-anak pada umumnya, juga diharapkan dapat menerima akses kebahasaan yang lebih besar dari lingkungannya

Hal-hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam pembelajaran bahasa agar ATR dapat menggunakan metode komunikasi oral dengan baik,

• Gunakan bahasa sehari-hari secara wajar

• Materi ambil dari pengalaman anak

• Berikan penekanan pada pembelajaran membaca ujaran

• Perkuat latihan meniru ujaran yang wajar

• Gunakan setiap kesempatan untuk memberikan pengalaman bahasa yang wajar

• Gunakan pendekatan percakapan dalam pembelajaran, karena melalui percakapan bukan hanya terjadi pertukaran pengalaman dan pikiran, dalam percakapan terjadi percakapan bahasa yang lengkap, seperti bentuk-bentuk kalimat, gaya bahasa, intonasi, irama dan lagu kalimat, percakapan juga merupakan dasar penguasaan bahasa.Jenis-jenis Pendekatan Metode Oral

• Pendekatan oral kinestetik, yaitu suatu pendekatan oral yang mengandalkan membaca ujaran, peniruan melalui penglihatan, serta rangsangan perabaan, dan kinestetik tanpa memanfaatkan sisa pendengaran

• Pendekatan Unisensory, yaitu suatu pendekatan yang memberikan penekanan terhadap penggunaan ABM yang bermutu tinggi serta latihan mendengar. Dalam pendekatan ini membaca ujaran dinomorduakan.

• Pendekatan Oral Grafik, yaitu pendekatan oral yang menggunakan tulisan sebagai sarana dalam mengembangkan kemampuan komunikasi oral. Alexander Graham Bell mengembangkan kemampuan bahasa istrinya yang mengalami gangguan pendengaran (tuli) dengan cara ini.

Pendekatan ini kemudian digunakan di SLB B St. Michielgestel Negeri Belanda untuk ATR yang menderita aphasia.

Orang mengalami gangguan fungsi otak mengalami kesulitan dalam mengontrol organ artikulasi dan mengalami kelemahan dalam mengingat data yang disajikan secara berurutan, seperti dalam membaca ujaranKelebihan-kelebihan menggunakan metode komunikasi oral

• Metode komunikasi oral lebih fleksibel, baik pembicara maupun lawan bicara, lebih bebas

• Metode komunikasi oral lebih berdifrensiasi, dapat mengungkapkan nuansa perasaan dan hal-hal yang abstrak

• Menggembirakan, karena dapat digunakan untuk melakukan komunikasi lebih luas dengan masyarakat pada umumnyaKelemahan-kelemahan menggunakan metode komunikasi oral

• Sulit dilaksanakan bagi anak yang mengalami gangguan pendengaran dan mengalami gangguan lain, seperti: gangguan penglihatan, gangguan kecerdasan

• Terdapat beberapa konsonan yang dasar pengucapannya tidak dapat diamati secara kasat mata, karena dibentuk di bagian belakang mulut, seperti: k, g, serta yang tidak dapat dibedakan pada waktu diucapkan, seperti pada kata ”babi – papi, palu – malu, baju – maju”

• Sulit diamati pada jarak panjang yang agak jauh

• Banyak kata-kata dalam gerak bentuk bibir sama tetapi memiliki makna yang berbeda.

Wicara sebagai Media Komunikasi Oral

• Wicara adalah kemampuan yang dimiliki oleh manusia dalam mengucapkan bunti-bunyi  bahasa untuk mengekspresikan pikiran, gagasan, perasaan dengan memanfaatkan nafas, alat-alat ucap, otot-otot, dan syaraf secara terintegrasi.

• Wicara yaitu alat mengkomunikasikan pikiran, perasaan, gagasan, dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat  atau alat kontrol sosial, yang ditandai dengan ucapan yang jelas, pemilihan kata yang tepat dan penggunaan kelompok kata dan kalimat yang seksama.

Tujuan ATR diberikan latihan wicara

Agar:

• mampu mengucapkan kata, kelompok kata dan kalimat dengan jelas

• mampu mengendalikan alat ucapnya untuk perbaikan mutu bicaranya

• mampu memilih dan menggunakan kata dan kalimat yang tepat dalam berkomunikasi secara lisan

• senang menggunakan cara bicara dalam mengadakan komunikasi

• terampil menangkap menangkap bicara orang lain dengan cara membaca ujaran  dan memanfaatkan sisa pendengarannya

• meningkatkan sikap berpikir secara oral ATR kemampuan wicara baik

• Mampu berkomunikasi dalam masyarakat yang lebih luas,

• Mampu bekerja dan berintegrasi dalam masyarakat yang lebih luas

• Dapat mengembangkan diri sesuai dengan asas pendidikan seumur hidupMateri

• Latihan Wicara

• Latihan keterarahan wajah

• Latihan keterarahan suara

• Latihan pelemasan organ bicara: bibir, lidah, rahang

• Latihan pernafasan, seperti: meniup dengan hembusan, meniup dengan letupan, dan latihan menghirup dan menghembuskan nafas melalui hidung

• Latihan pembentukan suara: (1) menyadarkan untuk bersuara, (2) merasakan getaran pada dada pelatih, (3) menirukan ujaran pelatih sambil meraba dada, (4) melafalkan vokal bersuara, (5) meraban sambil merasakan getaran

• Latihan Pembentukan Fonem

• Latihan penggemblengan, perbaikan dan penyadaran irama

• Latihan pengembanganBahan-bahan Latihan

• Bahan fonologik

• Fonem segmental (fonem yang berwujud bunyi bahasa) vokal, konsonan, diftong

• Fonem suprasegmental (fonem yang tidak berwujud bunyi bahasa) aksen, intonasi, irama dan tempo

• Bahan morfologik; karta dasar, kata jadian/imbuhan, kata ulang dan kata majemuk

• Bahan sintaksis: kalimat berita, kalimat ajakan, perintah, larangan dan kalimat tanyaMetode

• Metode Global Diferensiasi, cara ini berangkat dari pertimbangan kebahasaan, yaitu bahasa pertama-tama menampakkan diri dalam ujaran dan dalam struktur  atau totalitas.

• Cara dimulai dengan cara ujaran yang utuh (global) kemudian ke fonem-fonem sebagai satuan bahasa yang paling kecil. Kegiatan dimulai dari kalimat ke kelompok kata ke kata dan ke fonem. Contoh:

Bu baju saya baru, kata Budi (kalimat), Bu / baju saya / baru, kata

Budi (kelompok kata)

Fonem yang akan dibentuk dan dikembangkan, fonem /b/, misalnya:

ba, ba, ba, bo,bo,bo, bu, bu, bu lalu kembali ke baju Budi baru

• Analisis Sintesis, yaitu kebalikan dari global difrensiasi, yakni dari fonem, kata, kelompok kata kemudian menuju ke kalimat

• Multi sensori. Metode ini didasarkan atas modalitas yang dimiliki anak, yaitu menggunakan seluruh sensori untuk memperoleh kesan-kesan bicara melalui penglihatan, pendengaran, taktil, kinestetik

• Metode suara, metode ini didasarkan atas perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi dengan ditemukannya alat bantu mendengar

Alat-alat

• Untuk rangsangan visual: cermin, lampu, buku catatan, gambar-gambar, kartu identifikasi, alat kontrol sengau, alat plosif dan pias kata

• Untuk rangsangan auditoris: speech trainer, ABD klasikal dan ABD individual,

• Untuk rangsangan vibrasi: vibrator dan sikat getar

• Untuk pernafasan: lilin, kipas, parfum, gelembung air sabun, peluit, saluran kayu dengan bola pingpong

• Untuk pelemasan: kue kering, permen bertangkai, madu dll Berdasarkan Fonetika

• Metode Fonetik, yaitu urutan latihan didasarkan pada mudah sukarnya bunyi bunyi menurut ilmu fonetik.

Bunyi bahasa diajarkan dari masing-masing deretan bunyi yang letaknya paling depan atu di muka mulut, karena bunyi-bunyi tersebut paling mudah dilihat dan paling mudah ditirukan. Pertama p, b, w, l, m kemudian t, d, n, lalu k, g dan yang terakhir c, j, ny.

• Metode Tangkap dan Peran Ganda. Metode ini didasarkan atas asas individualitas anak. Guru melatih anak untuk berbicara bukan berdasarkan pada urutan fonem, tetapi berdasarkan fonem yang paling mudah diucapkan. Kepekaan guru sangat dituntut dalam menangkap fonem yang diucapkan secara spontan. Fonem ini merupakan titik tolak yang dikembangkan dalam kata-kata sebagai materi pelajaran. Fonem-fonem yang sukar bagi anak tidak dipaksakan, tetapi ditunda dulu sampai anak sedikit maju.

BUKU MEWARNA: AYAH & IBU

Mari ajak anak-anak kita memberikan hasil kerja mereka untuk ayah dan ibu. Bila perlu, ajak anak-anak memberi tambahkan berupa tulisan nats alkitab pilihan untuk ayah dan ibu tercinta.

Selamat mengajar dengan riang.

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